Lighting streets at night ensures the safety of pedestrians and vehicles. In ancient times, manual lanterns were used to cover distances at night, replacing torches. A candle or an oil lamp was placed in the lantern.
The First Street Lamps
The first lanterns appeared in London and Paris, and they were oil lanterns. The first system of urban street lighting was installed in Amsterdam at the end of the seventeenth century. Oil was used in street lamps in the eighteenth century. Oil lamps were replaced by gas lamps in the 19th century.
It is noteworthy that today the manufacturers of street lighting have not abandoned the classic lantern, stylization of vintage products can be seen on the streets of every city.
Street Lighting: Types
The market of modern lighting equipment offers several types of street lamps, they differ in size, location of installation and technical characteristics. The segment of street lighting includes:
- facade lights;
- street lamps;
- suspended, cantilevered;
- wall lights;
- underwater for the pool and floating.
These are the main groups of lighting devices. There are also separate subgroups – LED spotlights with sensors, LED lighting fixtures on solar panels, etc.
Outdoor lighting has higher requirements than devices for indoor use. All outdoor luminaires must be reliably protected against dust, moisture, temperature fluctuations, rainfall and mechanical damage. Index of protection of outdoor luminaires should be at least IP44. For underground and underwater – IP67 and IP68.
Metal, plastic and glass are used to manufacture such devices. When installing equipment, it is necessary to consider the safety of the models. The safest are considered products with a voltage not exceeding 12-24 V. Therefore, it is recommended to install devices with the use of a step-down transformer.
Types of Lanterns for Street Lighting
Street lights are made in several styles. Some of the most popular are classic lighting fixtures. Their design includes a stand with a lamp, which is made of glass and metal. Forged body serves as a reliable protection and an excellent decoration of the product. The pole can be a single light source or several. These models are used in historic districts of the city, in parks, city gardens and on private plots.
Modern lighting fixtures look quite spectacular. They have fewer decorative details, but more variations of plafonds. Elegant glass plafonds can be round, cylindrical, cone-shaped. Popular lanterns torch shape, with overhead mounted plafonds. Their light flux is directed strictly upwards, so they are not recommended for use on small areas and household plots.
LED models are made in a minimalist style. Basically, these are outdoor lights, which are made of metal and plastic, equipped with built-in LEDs. They can have different heights, power and intensity of luminous flux. This is quite energy efficient models. With minimal power consumption they provide a powerful light output. Light fixtures have a sealed housing, can be equipped with controllers that change the color of the glow.
Pendant street lights can be mounted on poles, but most often they are designed to illuminate the entrance area, terraces, outdoor veranda, gazebo or picnic area.
Unlike lanterns, they are equipped with a chain, with which you can adjust the length of the model. Pendant products are made in different styles: classic, modern, minimalism.
Another type of LED devices – solar-powered lights. These innovative models do not need to be connected to the power grid, they work on the energy of the sun, which is stored in a battery. You can choose the right device for the street or yard area. The presence of a sensor allows them to automatically turn on with the onset of darkness.
Types of Lamps for Street Lighting
Among all light sources, the incandescent lamp is one of the most energy-intensive. It perfectly copes with its tasks indoors, but least suitable for the organization of outdoor lighting, so it is rarely used.
Outdoor light sources include:
- metal halide;
- Sodium lamps.
Most often LED lamps are used in street lights. They provide excellent light output and help save electricity. They have a long service life, so they very rarely need to be replaced. LED lamps are absolutely harmless when working and do not require special disposal. Available with different bases and wattages.
Metal halide lamps have a high light output. Their radiation spectrum is similar to that of daylight. It takes time for them to warm up when you turn them on. Metal halide lanterns are used for architectural illumination of facades, squares, stadiums, etc. Mercury lamps have a wide range of wattages. They are used where the color of the luminous flux is not important. Sodium lamps have a bright orange-yellow color. They are used to illuminate highways, interchanges, parking lots, construction sites and other facilities.
Street Lighting: Standards
The brightness of the light output depends on the type of roads – expressways, highways of regional or local importance. Also on the choice of lighting equipment affects the road surface. The main regulatory recommendations for lighting:
- for streets and roads with a norm of 4 lux use lighting fixtures that provide a wide or semi wide light distribution;
- for internal passages of streets, parking lots, household waste disposal sites in neighborhoods, direct light fixtures are required;
- for alleys, pedestrian paths, central entrances to parks, gardens, resorts and recreation centers, we need light fixtures of diffused light;
- for areas in front of stages and attractions use models of wide light distribution;
- for streets, roads and squares in cities, lanterns on poles are used.